Challenges and opportunities of Pasture Management in Mongolia
International Symposium on "Pastoralism in Central Asia: Status, Challenges and Opportunities in Mountain Areas",KYRGYZSTAN, 13-18 JUNE 2011
CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES OF PASTURE MANAGEMENT IN MONGOLIA
Hijaba Ykhanbai, PhD, Sc.D, Chairman,
Environment and Development Association “JASIL”
The paper focus on two main approaches of pasture management: a multi-institutional, holistic approach, and a bottom-up approach for institutional improvement. Community-Based Co-Management of Pastureland is effective mechanism for overcoming the ‘tragedy of the commons’, Climate change and desertification impacts. It requires that all stakeholders support for the changes and actively participate in pastureland’s sustainable management efforts. Local people are the heart of the rural development process that results from the implementation of these mechanisms. Co-management strategies, bringing together knowledge and expertise from various social actors, are also important for reducing natural resource degradation and for timely adaptation to climate change, hard and cold winter (zhud) and drought. Collaborative learning is key opportunities to building capacity of the stakeholders at all levels. Over time, accumulated experiences and lessons learned at the local level can serve as the basis for the formulation of enabling policies and laws. Novel natural resource management experiences were first introduced in Mongolia in early in 2000’s. Research results implemented by us infour sites, representing the different Mongolia’s eco-regions, were selected as learning sites, is a base for these challenges and opportunities of pasture management.
To date, most stakeholders have accepted the principle of co-management as useful for guiding the sustainable use and management of pasture land. However, in order for co-management arrangements and collaborative learning to succeed in the long run, all neighborhood herders and other primary and secondary stakeholders need to be involved and contribute for the changes. At the same time, national and local policies and laws, should be supportive and responsive to diverse local realities. Opportunities can fulfill with the co-management included a major role for the communities and its association, as well as for different social and disadvantaged groups, such as women, youth and others. Paper will highlight results of participatory action research, problem solving at root level, networking in all levels, as well as benefits and practical importance of institutional evolution for CBNRM, in the form of community and community associations, and local level CM teams. Successful co-management also requires the establishment of joint co-management arrangements and informal and formal institutions at all levels.
Key words: Pasture land, co-management, institution, policy support, collaborative learning, communities